Append Array Python

If you import X from your main program, Python will load the code for X and execute it. Therefore, when we talk about python arrays, we usually mean python lists. This is really a computer problem, not a Python problem, but we will show you how to cope with this quirk and others if you are using Python. Disadvantages : 1) Output - if you need to output your "array" you need to fill in the blanks. Again, the callback is invoked with three arguments: the value of the element, the index of the element, and the Array object being traversed. Python offers us three different methods to do so. For example, to append to an array in Python you can just use the familiar array. Previous: Write a Python program to create an array of 5 integers and display the array items. The join() method returns the array as a string. In this Python 3 tutorial, we cover the concept of multi-dimensional lists. All in all an easy way to handle structured data. However, in python when I try to add all the Z-values to the list [] after printing it's like creating multiple lists, with each one having one more element than another. There are 8 elements in the array. News about the dynamic, interpreted, interactive, object-oriented, extensible programming language Python. If you use Python to round 4. In this program, you will learn to add two numbers and display it using print() function. Python Collections (Arrays) There are four collection data types in the Python programming language: List is a collection which is ordered and changeable. The key difference between append and extend in Python is that, append adds its arguments as a single element to the end of the list while the extend iterates over its arguments by adding each element to the list and extending it. We have to ignore the index when appending a series, because that is the law, unless the series has a name. Figure 16: Multiplying two 3D numpy arrays X and Y. All the tutorials are in Hindi Language. Append Data¶. For example, if you want to add element to a list, you can use append() method. tolist¶ method. On probing, it looks as though the time it takes to append something to a list goes up exponentially with the length of the list, and once the length is more than 10,000 or so, it becomes a problem. NumPy arrays are designed to handle large data sets efficiently and with a minimum of fuss. Deleting an item from a list or array while iterating over it is a Python problem that is well known to any experienced software developer. If you are new to Python, you should start by writing a Python hello world program, and understanding Python variables and strings. Machine learning data is represented as arrays. A NumPy array is more like an object-oriented version of a traditional C or C++ array. I add the (unspectacular) examples from this post to my python script examples repository on GitHub. may_share_memory() to check if two arrays share the same memory block. Some of the operations covered by this tutorial may be useful for other kinds of multidimensional array processing than image processing. C# String To Array C# Strings. As said on StackOverflow, Python makes this actually ridiculously easy: [code]a = [1, 2, 3, 4] b = [5, 6, 7, 8] c = a + b >>> c = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8][/code] Join. We can clear a list by assigning an empty list. resize - NumPy v1. ParaView offers rich scripting support through Python. See the post The Swift Swift Tutorial: How to Use UITableView in Swift I mentioned above for a good example of this in tables. In other words I don't want to add single values one at a time. My Dashboard; Pages; Python Lists vs. The performance of Method 4 is more than twenty times better than naive appending in the 20,000 test and it does pretty well also on the 500,000 test. Numpy arrays are great alternatives to Python Lists. Sometimes a 2D list is helpful in programs. Get a background in Python with this course for beginners. Use the protocol buffer compiler. Lists can be indexed, sliced and manipulated with other built-in functions. Ensemble models combine predictions from multiple models to improve the overall performance. Using Using list() function. concat([df1, df2]), you can simply call df1. insert (index, value). No duplicate members. Check the documentation of what is available. Append: Adds an element to the end of the list. append() Python’s Numpy module provides a function to append elements to the end of a Numpy Array. Multi dimensional lists are lists within lists, or lists within lists within lists you get the point. Many Python methods, such as replace(), join(), or split() modify strings. C:\Python\Scripts\ [*. Arrays are similar in some respects to Python lists, but are multidimensional, homogeneous in type, and support compact and efficient array-level manipulations. Join us to Learn more Pearl Institute Batala (an ISO 9001:2015 Certified. Problem 6: Write a function to compute the total number of lines of code, ignoring empty and comment lines, in all python files in the specified directory recursively. The table produced can include a header with title for each column and separated from the first row with a line drawn using a user specified character. concatenate Join a sequence of arrays along an existing axis. Data items are converted to the nearest compatible builtin Python type, via the item function. We can append values. Array elements may be assigned to scalars and vice versa. > knowing if the call to append is O(1), even amortized. It doesn't return a new. Python Forums on Bytes. Here, ‘other’ parameter can be a DataFrame , Series or Dictionary or list of these. Webucator provides instructor-led training to students throughout the US and Canada. strip ()) return Since Python has a high overhead for function calls, the most efficient way is to. For those of you who are new to the topic, let's clarify what it exactly is and what it's good for. In this lesson, we will look at some neat tips and tricks to play with vectors, matrices and arrays using NumPy library in Python. The syntax to use it is: a. If you create arrays using the array module, all elements of the array must be of the same type. And then I want to append it into another NumPy array (just like we create a list of lists). The syntax is clear. JSON is built on two structures: A collection of name/value pairs. As an exercise, write a function with infinite recursion and run it in the Python interpreter. Previous: Write a Python program to append a new item to the end of the array. Numpy, short for Numeric or Numerical Python, is a general-purpose, array-processing Python package written mostly in C. bitLen() can be modified to also provide the count of the number of set bits in the integer. hoe to write a generic. The platform's main capabilities include technologies that enable: Voice , SMS/MMS , Fax , Glip Team Messaging , Data and Configurations. (4 replies) Hi there, I wanna compile a 6000x1000 array with python. Abu Zahed Jony I am Abu Zahed Jony. The pseudo code is: a= for i = 1 to dim(a) print a end How to find the dimension in python? Also, anyone has a handbook to suggest so I can borrow from library Shell Programming and Scripting. What is extend in Python 4. Write a Python program to convert an array to an array of machine values and return the bytes representation. Python | Ways to add row/columns in numpy array Given numpy array, the task is to add rows/columns basis on requirements to numpy array. Python List append() The append() method adds an item to the end of the list. One possible solution is to move the entire file into a faster disk, say, a solid state disk so that access latencies can be reduced quite a lot. Here a1 is. And then I want to append it into another NumPy array (just like we create a list of lists). Some of the features described here may not be available in earlier versions of Python. Summer 2010 15-110 (Reid-Miller) Two-Dimensional Arrays • Two-dimensional (2D) arrays are indexed by two subscripts, one for the row and one for the column. Python Program to Check Whether a String is Palindrome or Not To understand this example, you should have the knowledge of following Python programming topics: Python ifelse Statement. Write a function called increment_date that takes a Date object, date, and an integer, n, and returns a new Date object that represents the day n days after date. Published: Tuesday 23 rd August 2016. According to documentation of numpy. You have to pick the wanted elements from the list, convert the string to the wanted type, and assign the result to the array. If you want to steer clear of the Tornado-framework, there are several Python implementations of Socket. But in certain situations, we need to append each element we add in front of list. append(object) NOTE: A list is an object. To resize a list, we can use slice syntax. This page is devoted to various tips and tricks that help improve the performance of your Python programs. The module uses Python's object-oriented features to provide quick, easy, and efficient access to FITS files. Then, the first item in the sequence is assigned to the iterating variable iterating_var. And we can insert a value. The length in bytes of one array item in the internal representation. Dictionaries are Python’s implementation of a data structure that is more generally known as an associative array. In our last Python Library tutorial, we studied Python SciPy. full Return a new array of given shape filled with value. python arrays. What is append in Python 3. Fortunately, Python contains built-in sorting algorithms that are much more efficient than either of the simplistic algorithms just shown. You can create an array easily with the array() function, where you give the data as the first argument and a vector with the sizes of the dimensions as the second argument. Pandas dataframe. Arrays are more complicated structures than regular data types. A list of class objects mimics a C array of structures. To contribute to the official Python website, see the About the Python Web Site page or read the developer guide on Read the Docs. file]s what are they, why; How to close all python-opened file identifiers? Python thinks file is empty; How can I use python for file processing [2. Ask Question What is the difference between Python's list methods append and extend? 3718. The main difference between tuples and list is that tuples are immutable i. Python has some list methods that you can use to perform frequency occurring task (related to list) with ease. Master Python loops to deepen your knowledge. Python is a great language for doing data analysis, primarily because of the fantastic ecosystem of data-centric python packages. I already tested this solution: How to Link/Append a data-block using the Python API?, and this one: How to link/append with a Python script?. To retrieve an item from the top of the stack, use pop() without an explicit index. You can vote up the examples you like or vote down the ones you don't like. array — Efficient arrays of numeric values¶ This module defines an object type which can compactly represent an array of basic values: characters, integers, floating point numbers. We can append values. The proposed design uses four Python classes: ArrayType, UFunc, Array, and ArrayView; and a low-level C-extension module, _ufunc, to handle the array operations efficiently. Using this information, we can use Python's array functionality, called "slicing", on our strings! Slicing is a general piece of functionality that can be applied to any array-type object in Python. 7,behavior Short answer: your correct doesn't work. The number of dimensions is the rank of the array; the shape of an array is a tuple of integers giving the size of the array along each dimension. In this tutorial, you will discover how to. I wanna compile a 6000x1000 array with python. How to Reference Elements in an Array in Python. To resize a list, we can use slice syntax. They are very helpful. I have until now been using the array. Strings are immutable. In this article we will discuss how to add or append new key value pairs in a dictionary and also how to update value of existing keys. 1- Both extend and append are list methods that are used to add items to a list. So hoe to write a generic code for creating a empty 2D array and dynamically insert values in it. They are extracted from open source Python projects. Add two 4-D arrays in Python. Contribute your code and comments through Disqus. Using this information, we can use Python's array functionality, called "slicing", on our strings! Slicing is a general piece of functionality that can be applied to any array-type object in Python. python,list,numpy,multidimensional-array. Need help? Post your question and get tips & solutions from a community of 429,131 IT Pros & Developers. A user can treat lists as arrays. Mutable objects mean that we add/delete items from the list, set or dictionary however, that is not true in case of immutable objects like tuple or strings. Concatenate arrays horizontally. insert unique data in a list. If you are thinking about learning to program for the first time, then you might find Python easier to master. They are extracted from open source Python projects. Previous Next In this post, we will see how to create an empty list in python. 5’s new with statement (dead link) seems to be a bit confusing even for experienced Python programmers. Pandas Index. The names of the fields are given with the `names` arguments,. With strings, and string lists, we store and can handle this data in an efficient way. For example, if you want to add element to a list, you can use append() method. Pandas is one of those packages and makes importing and analyzing data much easier. Lists in Python language can be compared to arrays in Java but they are different in many other aspects. Append: Adds its argument as a single element to the end of a list. Put three items in your hash table to begin. I'm trying to add items to an array in python. I have one in the editor part of dex tracker (available on source forge) The array will start at zero and ie x[0] and will keep growing as long as you. append method. Is Python list same as an Array? T he 'array' data structure in core python is not very efficient or reliable. You can always append item to list object. Examples are provided for scenarios where both the DataFrames have similar columns and non-similar columns. Python has evolved as the most preferred Language for Data Analytics and the increasing search trends on python also indicates that Python is the next "Big Thing" and a must for Professionals in. extend (items) Extends the array by appending elements. Some of the features described here may not be available in earlier versions of Python. An object contains both data (the actual string itself) as well as methods, which are effectively functions which that are built into the object and are available to any instance of the object. I would like to get some code review for my recursive implementation of python flatten array method. They are flexible. $ python extend. This section will present several examples of using NumPy array manipulation to access data and subarrays, and to split, reshape, and join the arrays. In Python 2. my_list = [1,2,3,4] To add a new element to the list, we can use append method in the following way. In practice, you need to know a few things about Python memory management to get a memory-efficient program running. Python has a function called dir that lists the methods available for. When looping over an array or any data structure in Python, there's a lot of overhead involved. array([]) for i in. Python has a great built-in list type named "list". append(), the np. We will only brush over them here. The length of the list increases by one. Python dictionary provides a member function update() i. The above code opens 'my_file. Simple formatted tables in python with Texttable module. The course provided an implementation of Dynamic Array in Java. How do you then reference the individual elements of the array? For example, say you want the third element of the 2nd row. cinema = [] for j in range (5): column = [] for i in range (5): column. Python Programming Code to One Dimensional Array. Then we use a format string to display the sorted list. Some of the operations covered by this tutorial may be useful for other kinds of multidimensional array processing than image processing. PyFITS is a Python module for reading, writing, and manipulating FITS files. In this Python 3 tutorial, we cover the concept of multi-dimensional lists. Use numpy's resize function (numpy. A slicing operation creates a view on the original array, which is just a way of accessing array data. append() : How to append elements at the end… Find the index of value in Numpy Array using numpy. Python also supports computed lists, called "list comprehensions". getObject (index) Returns the object at the given index position in the array. This is a design principle for all mutable data structures in Python. In this article, we will show you, how to create a Python Programming Array, access array elements, iterating array elements, insert new array item, delete array items, clear array. The pseudo code is: a= for i = 1 to dim(a) print a end How to find the dimension in python? Also, anyone has a handbook to suggest so I can borrow from library Shell Programming and Scripting. Usually a dictionary will be the. The same way you would add any other object. One Dimensional Array Program in Python. #----- # Python does not automatically flatten lists, in other words # in the use the append method: Finding All Elements in an Array Matching Certain Criteria. Python program that uses append, del, insert # Create bytearray and append integers as bytes. Because of this, you can call a method or property on the existing reference and you do not have to assign the return value to a StringBuilder object, as the following example illustrates. Something like [ a b c ]. Python arrays are a special variable. As mentioned earlier, items in numpy array object follow zero-based index. 6 Data Analysis with Python and Pandas Tutorial. To add an item to the top of the stack, use append(). Dictionaries are Python’s implementation of a data structure that is more generally known as an associative array. Concatenate arrays horizontally. Here, ‘other’ parameter can be a DataFrame , Series or Dictionary or list of these. The syntax of append is as follows: numpy. See the post The Swift Swift Tutorial: How to Use UITableView in Swift I mentioned above for a good example of this in tables. The proposed design uses four Python classes: ArrayType, UFunc, Array, and ArrayView; and a low-level C-extension module, _ufunc, to handle the array operations efficiently. Finally: We use a for-loop to enumerate, and print, the elements in the array. txt' in read mode then stores the data it reads from my_file. python,python-2. Remember that in Python, the first element is at index 0!. News about the dynamic, interpreted, interactive, object-oriented, extensible programming language Python. The Python Discord. insert (index, value). In this tutorial, you will discover the N-dimensional array in NumPy for representing. Python 3 has been supported by PyQt almost from the day Python 3 was released; PySide added Python 3 support in 2011. It is proposed to allow conditional construction of list literals using for and if clauses. If we perform brute force techniques, we need to perform unnecessary shifts of elements and hence, having shorthands for it is. The append() method appends a passed obj into the existing list. append(obj) Parameters. First, convert tuple to list by built-in function list(). The relative sluggishness of Python generally manifests itself in situations where many small operations are being repeated - for instance looping over arrays to operate on each element. The following are code examples for showing how to use cv2. close() when finished. The above code opens 'my_file. append(array, values, axis = None) : appends values along the mentioned axis at the end of the array. In real-world Often tasks have to store rectangular data table. Append: Adds its argument as a single element to the end of a list. Append, del, insert. We'll start by looking at the Python built-ins, and then take a look at the routines included in NumPy and optimized for NumPy arrays. Now, plt is a Python reference to the t1 table while pla1 refers to the a1 array. However, user cannot constraint the type of elements stored in a list. H5py uses straightforward NumPy and Python metaphors, like dictionary and NumPy array syntax. Python string object is immutable. append lookup for each new element. append() function is used to append rows of other dataframe to the. Add the elements of a list (or any iterable), to the end of the current list Note: Python does not have built-in support for Arrays, but Python Lists can be used. An array is a data structure that stores values of same data type. It allows the array to be used in the console. obj − This is the object to be appended in the list. Summer 2010 15-110 (Reid-Miller) Two-Dimensional Arrays • Two-dimensional (2D) arrays are indexed by two subscripts, one for the row and one for the column. In Python 2. In general, vectorized array operations will often be one or two (or more) orders of magnitude faster than their pure Python equivalents, with the biggest impact [seen] in any kind of numerical computations. As said on StackOverflow, Python makes this actually ridiculously easy: [code]a = [1, 2, 3, 4] b = [5, 6, 7, 8] c = a + b >>> c = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8][/code] Join. I found myself wanting to flatten an array of arrays while writing some Python code earlier this Python: Equivalent to flatMap for Flattening an Array of Arrays flattened_episodes. syntax: # Adds an object (a number, a string or a # another list) at the end of my_list my_list. PEP 405: Virtual Environments¶ Virtual environments help create separate Python setups while sharing a system-wide base install, for ease of maintenance. and these are in line with my own benchmark. I am trying to learn data structures by taking this Udemy Course, Easy to Advanced Data Structures by William Fiset. 2) Finding blanks is a bit complicated, as you have to find an entry in your search range that does not exist in the dictionary. You can add a NumPy array element by using the append() method of the NumPy module. The module uses Python's object-oriented features to provide quick, easy, and efficient access to FITS files. All gists Back to GitHub. Or, for compatibility with Python, the PSFLv2. append() for appending multiple rows in dataframe. As said on StackOverflow, Python makes this actually ridiculously easy: [code]a = [1, 2, 3, 4] b = [5, 6, 7, 8] c = a + b >>> c = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8][/code] Join. bitLenCount() In common usage, the "bit count" of an integer is the number of set (1) bits, not the bit length of the integer described above. Append: Adds its argument as a single element to the end of a list. While python lists can contain values corresponding to different data types, arrays in python can only contain values corresponding to same data type. H5py uses straightforward NumPy and Python metaphors, like dictionary and NumPy array syntax. The key difference between append and extend in Python is that, append adds its arguments as a single element to the end of the list while the extend iterates over its arguments by adding each element to the list and extending it. Python Class Variable vs. To understand this example,. Instance Variable: What’s the Difference? A Python class attribute is an attribute of the class (circular, I know), rather than an attribute of an instance of a class. Sponsored by #native_company# — Learn More. Judging from comp. If you need to shrink and grow your array time-efficiently and without hassle, they are the way to go. Exercise 16. A list is a mutable container. Then we use a format string to display the sorted list. Figure 16: Multiplying two 3D numpy arrays X and Y. However, user cannot constraint the type of elements stored in a list. What is a python dictionary? A python dictionary is a list that is indexed by key values. The programs we have written so far are a bit rude in the sense that they accept no input from the user. The array_push() function inserts one or more elements to the end of an array. In my previous article, I explained how to create a deep learning-based movie sentiment analysis model using Python's Keras library. In this article, we will show you, how to create a Python Programming Array, access array elements, iterating array elements, insert new array item, delete array items, clear array. Python definition is - any of various large constricting snakes; especially : any of the large oviparous snakes (subfamily Pythoninae of the family Boidae) of Africa, Asia, Australia, and adjacent islands that include some of the largest existing snakes. If you create arrays using the array module, all elements of the array must be of the same type. For convience, lets call them arrays in this article. In our last Python Library tutorial, we studied Python SciPy. Very often we may set an array to be optional to check for an empty state. 2 Arrays in Python In lower level languages common mathematical operations on arrays must be done ``manually''. NumPy (pronounced / ˈ n ʌ m p aɪ / (NUM-py) or sometimes / ˈ n ʌ m p i / (NUM-pee)) is a library for the Python programming language, adding support for large, multi-dimensional arrays and matrices, along with a large collection of high-level mathematical functions to operate on these arrays. Based on the requirement, a new element can be added at the beginning, end, or any given index of array. Tuple is a collection which is ordered and unchangeable. You can push a new item or modify any existing with the help of the assignment operator. Strings, Lists, Arrays, and Dictionaries¶ The most import data structure for scientific computing in Python is the NumPy array. Python has changed in some significant ways since I first wrote my "fast python" page in about 1996, which means that some of the orderings will have changed. Set is a collection which is unordered and unindexed. If you need to construct an array by appending, build up a list instead and use vstack() (or hstack() or dstack() or column_stack() or concatenate() depending on the geometry). For example, an appendix is a section appended (added to the end) of a document. function array_append_record ( x1 , x2 , opt [1] : integer ) Arguments x1. Has the same effect as:. ParaView offers rich scripting support through Python. append Note that append does not occur in-place: a new array is allocated and filled. Description. Data items are converted to the nearest compatible builtin Python type, via the item function. Visualize Execution Live Programming Mode. In Python, you can also achieve the same results by doing a simple addition. Pandas Index. array It creates an ndarray from any object exposing array interface, or from any method that returns an array. The extension is that since NumPy arrays can be multi-dimensional, a list of N indices (really, a tuple) is needed for an N-dimensional array. You can vote up the examples you like or vote down the ones you don't like. You can add the numbers in the array [6,7,29] using a loop or using built-in method. How to append rows in a python list? Ask Question Asked 2 years, 5 months How to append something to an array? 2749. mm a écrit : > How can I do a array of class? s/array/list/ s1=[] ## this array should hold classes. The append method adds a single item to the end of the list, the extend method adds items from another list (or any sequence) to the end, and insert inserts an item at a given index, and move the remaining items to the right. After the #! shebang line and import statements, the program will check that there is more than one command line argument. hoe to write a generic. Often 2D data benefits from the array module. I haven't even managed to join 2! can it be done in excel 2003 VBA? the arrays are 2 dimensional (x Rows, 3 Columns). Know miscellaneous operations on arrays, such as finding the mean or max (array. This chapter shows you. Is there any function to do so? Or, I can add the list as a rows, if this is easier, and transpose the whole array after all the rows are setup. The programs we have written so far are a bit rude in the sense that they accept no input from the user. Note: this method will not change the original array. The code that converts the pre-loaded baseball list to a 2D numpy array is already in the script. No need to retain everything, but have the reflex to search in the documentation (online docs, help(), lookfor())!! For advanced use: master the indexing with arrays of integers, as well as broadcasting. It can get very confusing very fast, but it is good to know that it is an option. Here, we add a data element at the middle of the array using the python in-built insert() method. Since array is the default in NumPy, some functions may return an array even if you give them a matrix as an argument. ) If there is only one element in. Numpy arrays are great alternatives to Python Lists. The fact-checkers, whose work is more and more important for those who prefer facts over lies, police the line between fact and falsehood on a day-to-day basis, and do a great job. Today, my small contribution is to pass along a very good overview that reflects on one of Trump’s favorite overarching falsehoods. Namely: Trump describes an America in which everything was going down the tubes under  Obama, which is why we needed Trump to make America great again. And he claims that this project has come to fruition, with America setting records for prosperity under his leadership and guidance. “Obama bad; Trump good” is pretty much his analysis in all areas and measurement of U.S. activity, especially economically. Even if this were true, it would reflect poorly on Trump’s character, but it has the added problem of being false, a big lie made up of many small ones. Personally, I don’t assume that all economic measurements directly reflect the leadership of whoever occupies the Oval Office, nor am I smart enough to figure out what causes what in the economy. But the idea that presidents get the credit or the blame for the economy during their tenure is a political fact of life. Trump, in his adorable, immodest mendacity, not only claims credit for everything good that happens in the economy, but tells people, literally and specifically, that they have to vote for him even if they hate him, because without his guidance, their 401(k) accounts “will go down the tubes.” That would be offensive even if it were true, but it is utterly false. The stock market has been on a 10-year run of steady gains that began in 2009, the year Barack Obama was inaugurated. But why would anyone care about that? It’s only an unarguable, stubborn fact. Still, speaking of facts, there are so many measurements and indicators of how the economy is doing, that those not committed to an honest investigation can find evidence for whatever they want to believe. Trump and his most committed followers want to believe that everything was terrible under Barack Obama and great under Trump. That’s baloney. Anyone who believes that believes something false. And a series of charts and graphs published Monday in the Washington Post and explained by Economics Correspondent Heather Long provides the data that tells the tale. The details are complicated. Click through to the link above and you’ll learn much. But the overview is pretty simply this: The U.S. economy had a major meltdown in the last year of the George W. Bush presidency. Again, I’m not smart enough to know how much of this was Bush’s “fault.” But he had been in office for six years when the trouble started. So, if it’s ever reasonable to hold a president accountable for the performance of the economy, the timeline is bad for Bush. GDP growth went negative. Job growth fell sharply and then went negative. Median household income shrank. The Dow Jones Industrial Average dropped by more than 5,000 points! U.S. manufacturing output plunged, as did average home values, as did average hourly wages, as did measures of consumer confidence and most other indicators of economic health. (Backup for that is contained in the Post piece I linked to above.) Barack Obama inherited that mess of falling numbers, which continued during his first year in office, 2009, as he put in place policies designed to turn it around. By 2010, Obama’s second year, pretty much all of the negative numbers had turned positive. By the time Obama was up for reelection in 2012, all of them were headed in the right direction, which is certainly among the reasons voters gave him a second term by a solid (not landslide) margin. Basically, all of those good numbers continued throughout the second Obama term. The U.S. GDP, probably the single best measure of how the economy is doing, grew by 2.9 percent in 2015, which was Obama’s seventh year in office and was the best GDP growth number since before the crash of the late Bush years. GDP growth slowed to 1.6 percent in 2016, which may have been among the indicators that supported Trump’s campaign-year argument that everything was going to hell and only he could fix it. During the first year of Trump, GDP growth grew to 2.4 percent, which is decent but not great and anyway, a reasonable person would acknowledge that — to the degree that economic performance is to the credit or blame of the president — the performance in the first year of a new president is a mixture of the old and new policies. In Trump’s second year, 2018, the GDP grew 2.9 percent, equaling Obama’s best year, and so far in 2019, the growth rate has fallen to 2.1 percent, a mediocre number and a decline for which Trump presumably accepts no responsibility and blames either Nancy Pelosi, Ilhan Omar or, if he can swing it, Barack Obama. I suppose it’s natural for a president to want to take credit for everything good that happens on his (or someday her) watch, but not the blame for anything bad. Trump is more blatant about this than most. If we judge by his bad but remarkably steady approval ratings (today, according to the average maintained by 538.com, it’s 41.9 approval/ 53.7 disapproval) the pretty-good economy is not winning him new supporters, nor is his constant exaggeration of his accomplishments costing him many old ones). I already offered it above, but the full Washington Post workup of these numbers, and commentary/explanation by economics correspondent Heather Long, are here. On a related matter, if you care about what used to be called fiscal conservatism, which is the belief that federal debt and deficit matter, here’s a New York Times analysis, based on Congressional Budget Office data, suggesting that the annual budget deficit (that’s the amount the government borrows every year reflecting that amount by which federal spending exceeds revenues) which fell steadily during the Obama years, from a peak of $1.4 trillion at the beginning of the Obama administration, to $585 billion in 2016 (Obama’s last year in office), will be back up to $960 billion this fiscal year, and back over $1 trillion in 2020. (Here’s the New York Times piece detailing those numbers.) Trump is currently floating various tax cuts for the rich and the poor that will presumably worsen those projections, if passed. As the Times piece reported: