Python Limit Order Book

We’ve also found that doing a number of exercises helps internalize each language concept. Different from previous models we explicitly model a reference price process that "sweeps" the limit order book as it fluctuates up and down. You'll see hands-on examples of working with Python's built-in "json" module all the way up to encoding and decoding custom objects. mhtml from Mafia-download. >>> Python Software Foundation. Python is one of top 5 programming languages today. All of the web2py objects are accessible via a module called gluon, and that is the subject of later chapters. Python Concepts/Lists. The output from all the example programs from PyMOTW has been generated with Python 2. Uses include: data cleaning and transformation, numerical simulation, statistical modeling, data visualization, machine learning, and much more. However one of my. It includes some tools to output sampled data as well as a curses-based application to view the book and move forward or backward in time. Become a Member Donate to the PSF. the construction of a lambda in Groovy is different than the construction of a lambda in Python or a reserved word in Javascript forces a Gremlin step to have slightly different naming than Java. multi-threaded applications, including why we may choose to use multiprocessing with OpenCV to speed up the processing of a given dataset. It contains well written, well thought and well explained computer science and programming articles, quizzes and practice/competitive programming/company interview Questions. In general, Python code is more readable; also, because it is executable, readers can download it, run it, and modify it. Any fields used in an order_by() call are included in the SQL SELECT columns. Python’s str. "tags" == "python") # does NOT work. Order of Operations []. Packt is the online library and learning platform for professional developers. This produces output similar to that of the traceback module for the frames retrieved by get_stack(). Setup BeautifulSoup and export to CSV. See the Directives_ section in the `reStructuredText Markup Specification`_ for syntax details. Packed with the trends, news & links you need to be smart, informed, and ahead of the curve. This book uses camelcase for variable names instead of underscores; that is, variables lookLikeThis instead of looking_like_this. Functions are a convenient way to divide your code into useful blocks, allowing us to order our code, make it more readable, reuse it and save some time. Kraken is one of the biggest exchanges for crypto currencies, providing an API supporting queries to access public information such as last prices/volumes, limit order book and private information like positions, balance, etc. Based on high‐frequency observations of the limit order book, the maximum empirical likelihood estimator (MELE) is applied to estimate the parameters of the compound Poisson processes. AsciiDoc is light weight: it consists of a single Python script and a bunch of configuration files. that consumes the cheapest limit orders in the book. Python logging module defines functions and classes that provide a flexible event logging system for python applications. python fahren2. You may get a "maximum recusion limit exceeded" exception. market order. 3 isn't allowed, whereas 6. x as well: Functions in Python 2. Download data files for use with the book. There are already tons of tutorials on how to make basic plots in matplotlib. Find nth Child Using Beautiful Soup. Code examples and solutions are available from this zip file. Burmese pythons are found primarily in and around the Everglades ecosystem in south Florida where the snake represents a threat to native wildlife. We will follow this (and the other PEP 8 recommendations) in this book. Download files. In order to make any operation with the database we need to get a cursor object and pass the SQL statements to the cursor object. Real news, curated by real humans. A limit order is an order to trade a certain amount of a security at a given price. If any part of the order results in taking liquidity, the order will be rejected and no part of it will execute. It wasn't automatically ordered alphabetically or numerically. Python 3 This is a tutorial in Python3, but this chapter of our course is available in a version for Python 2. The output includes the word “Worker” printed five times, although it may not be entirely clean depending on the order of execution. What would be the best algorithm to identify Iceberg Orders? I have found one in the paper "The Impact of Hidden Liquidity in Limit Order Books" by Stefan Frey and Patrik Sandas, but I was wondering if anyone here would have inputs on the subject. The Strategy class requires that any subclass implement the generate_signals method. Market participantscan posttwo types of buy/sell orders. This is your opportunity to show admission officers who you are and to provide information about yourself that didn’t fit in other areas of your application. It is based on the original PyMOTW series, which covered Python 2. If you have played any other form of poker, 5-card draw rules are similar in that the aim of the game is to make the best five-card poker hand. hidden (bool) - (optional) Orders not displayed in order book; iceberg (bool) - (optional) Only visible portion of the order is displayed in the order book; visible_size (bool) - (optional) The maximum visible size of an. Python does not provide modules like C++'s set and map data types as part of its standard library. For another challenge, you can change the code a few different ways to make the program behave differently. In this example, calcSum is optional - if it's not specified when you call the function, it gets a default value of True. Welcome to python-idex v1. You'll see hands-on examples of working with Python's built-in "json" module all the way up to encoding and decoding custom objects. If you use the book in the order it is laid out, you'll begin your exploration in Python by understanding the key differences between Python 3 and the previous versions of the language. A Gentle introduction to Kraken API with python. For example 13 is a prime number because it is only divisible by 1 and 13, on the other hand 12 is not a prime number because it is divisible by 2, 4, 6 and number its. It is easy to order for veg and non-veg food on train using the reputed food providers. This section from chapter two explores what's running on our networks that we don't. Start studying Python Cook Book: Chapter 1 Data Structures & Algorithms. But I'm able to retrieve real time information from the orderbook with Binance's Websockets, you could define a websocket for each symbol and then start the socket and have the callback function figure out what to do with the returned information. In this series of tutorials we are going to see how one can leverage the powerful functionality provided by a number of Python packages to develop and backtest a quantitative trading strategy. For the whole section on integer arithmetic, where you see a set-off line in typewriter font, type individual lines at the > > > prompt in the Python Shell. Limit Order Book for high-frequency trading (HFT), as described by WK Selph, implemented in Python3 and C. Welcome to python-idex v1. Data Science Course. OpenVPN Connect is the free and full-featured VPN Client that is developed in-house. Python was used for building some of the most famous websites in the world. In the first part of this tutorial, we’ll discuss single-threaded vs. Free Returns Free Shipping On Orders $49+. Python understands numbers and standard arithmetic. 2 Creating Data Types. The Python Hunter model, with 8-inch barrel and factory-installed 2X Leupold scope, was made in 1980. In this example, the ORDER BY clause sorts the result set by the last name in descending order first and then sorts the sorted result set by the first name in ascending order to produce the final result set. The central limit theorem describes the shape of the distribution of sample means as a Gaussian, which is a distribution that statistics knows a lot about. Problem 6: Write a function to compute the total number of lines of code, ignoring empty and comment lines, in all python files in the specified directory recursively. The goal is to apply full level order book information on to a Convolut. Python introduced a new operator for matrix multiplication: the “@” symbol. That’s why we’ve selected a set of 50 SQL queries that you can use to step up your learning. :param symbol: required:type symbol: str:param side: required:type side: enum:param quantity: required:type quantity: decimal:param price: required:type price: str. Building an order book I've spent the last couple weeks trying to figure out the best way to build a simple order book in python. limit order. We’ve also found that doing a number of exercises helps internalize each language concept. Python API - Place and close order sample code. hidden (bool) - (optional) Orders not displayed in order book; iceberg (bool) - (optional) Only visible portion of the order is displayed in the order book; visible_size (bool) - (optional) The maximum visible size of an. 4+)¶ Another useful collection is the enum object. If start_time is specified, start with the first trade after start_time. CSV Files in Python. Python is a language that allows for fewer lines of code then say its counterparts c++ and Java script. If a trader wants to reduce the size of her order, she can issue a cancel/replace, which cancels the order, then immediately replaces it with another order at the same price, but with a lower size. While the beginning of the book focuses on scripting in Python, object-oriented coding concepts are gradually introduced to help make your code more modular, flexible, and complex without repetition. If you are the copyright owner for this file, please Report Abuse to 4shared. In general, the only thing that. Any autocorrelation in a stationarized series can be rectified by adding enough AR terms. It wasn't automatically ordered alphabetically or numerically. Python's Recursion Limit. The json library was added to Python in version 2. icebergQty (str) - Used with LIMIT, STOP_LOSS_LIMIT, and TAKE_PROFIT_LIMIT to create an iceberg order. Using Cloud Datastore with Python This page of the Bookshelf app tutorial shows how the sample app stores its persistent data, metadata for books, in Cloud Datastore. 8, unless otherwise noted. Also functions are a key way to define interfaces so programmers can share their code. Predicting Price Movement from Order Book State. A Computer Science portal for geeks. MicroPython. Welcome to python-idex v1. Get the real-time candle sticks for each asset pair across every major exchange. The central limit theorem describes the shape of the distribution of sample means as a Gaussian, which is a distribution that statistics knows a lot about. Different from previous models we explicitly model a reference price process that "sweeps" the limit order book as it fluctuates up and down. Frequency (Real Time or Throttled): Selecting “Real Time” will produce live results of order book changes as they occur. Regular expression are not failsafe: they can fail sometimes on specific input. Python is a dynamic programming language that's used in a wide range of domains thanks to its simple yet powerful nature. Second Life is a free 3D virtual world where users can create, connect, and chat with others from around the world using voice and text. Start studying Python Cook Book: Chapter 1 Data Structures & Algorithms. Limit Order Book Analytics is driven by scalable Spark clusters with a range of advanced analytics based on machine learning. In this tutorial you'll learn how to read and write JSON-encoded data using Python. For example, if you let the user enter search queries like tags:python, it would be convenient to somehow turn that into a query like Article. PyLimitBook is an implementation of a fast limit-order book for level-2 US equities data written in Python. sleep (10) order_book. If you want to ask better questions of data, or need to improve and extend the capabilities of your machine learning systems, this practical data science book is invaluable. One of Guido's key insights is that code is read much more often than it is written. But not the other way around. Any other OpenVPN protocol compatible Server will work with it too. Bayesian Reasoning means updating a model based on new evidence, and, with each eval, the surrogate is re-calculated to incorporate the latest information. Luckily at a faculty meeting three weeks before I was about to start my new book from scratch over the holiday break, Dr. Simple implementation of an order book with limit and market order in Python. either executed against a. The Jungle Book is a 2016 American fantasy adventure film directed and produced by Jon Favreau, produced by Walt Disney Pictures, and written by Justin Marks. 4 is, as prices go up by 20c increments at that price range. Today's post is a sample from the new book: "Matplotlib for Python Developers" by Sandro Tosi. In reconstructing the order book, we had to keep track of incoming limit buy and sell orders. Web scraping target and expected result. To understand this example, you should have the knowledge of following Python programming topics:. Python starts by executing the sequence of statements in the try block. Practice software is provided. ] Bence T oth, Yves Lemp eri ere, Cyril Deremble, Joachim de Lataillade, Julien Kockelkoren, and Jean-Philippe Bouchaud, Anomalous price impact and the critical nature of liquidity in nancial markets,. If a trader wants to reduce the size of her order, she can issue a cancel/replace, which cancels the order, then immediately replaces it with another order at the same price, but with a lower size. 3+, web browsers. Become a Member Donate to the PSF. If you find this content useful, please consider supporting the work by buying the book!. We choose a spatio-temporal representation (Sirignano, 2016; Dixon et al. As you may have noticed, the Video_Camera class subclasses a thread from the Python threading module. Titus and I have taken turns writing the column, although we haven't produced as many articles as we would have liked. The json library was added to Python in version 2. Utilize the robust Python libraries. Contact and Address book settings are found in three locations in Outlook. Download files. These results show that the limit distributions are degenerate as they only take values of 0 or 1. py: shows how to generate and store multiple solutions in the. They however do provide a way to buy or sell specific amounts of bitcoin or. Python is an object oriented programming language. The entire API's functionality is supported, including live market data updates and order placement. mhtml from Mafia-download. You may use this domain in examples without prior coordination or asking for permission. See the following orderdetails table from the sample database. Using Cloud Datastore with Python This page of the Bookshelf app tutorial shows how the sample app stores its persistent data, metadata for books, in Cloud Datastore. Once you memoize a function, it will only compute its output once for each set of parameters you call it with. It is a Python convention to start your variables with a lowercase letter. dictionaries. It can be used with lists, tuples, or any other sequence (provided it can be accessed in random order, of course):. In this article, Toptal Freelance Software Engineer Marcus McCurdy explores different approaches to solving this discord with code, including examples of Python m. pandas is an open source, BSD-licensed library providing high-performance, easy-to-use data structures and data analysis tools for the Python programming language. Python 3 has been supported by PyQt almost from the day Python 3 was released; PySide added Python 3 support in 2011. In Automate the Boring Stuff with Python, you'll learn how to use Python to write programs that do in minutes what would take you hours to do by hand-no prior programming experience required. This way, if the word "monty" occurs at the top of a page and "python" occurs at the. Python CSV DictWriter. orderbook - Matching Engine for Limit Order Book in Golang #opensource. InnoDB permits up to 4 billion tables. In an informal sense, in Python, we do things with stuff. Burmese pythons are found primarily in and around the Everglades ecosystem in south Florida where the snake represents a threat to native wildlife. PyLimitBook is an implementation of a fast limit-order book for level-2 US equities data written in Python. Algorithmic Trading at University of Essex. 5+ Upgrading If you've been using an older version of python-idex < 1. Expert Python Programming Second Edition Become an ace Python programmer by learning best coding practices and advance-level concepts with Python 3. The maximum price for the order is set by the limit price. The scope was mounted on the barrel using Redfield mounts and the gun was packaged in a Haliburton case. The distance (by percent or price) that the order should trail the market price. The file argument is an I/O stream to which the output is written; by default output is written to sys. py: shows how to generate and store multiple solutions in the. (Updated 11/10/2005) The entire Dive into Python book is available online he re. If you don’t, you probably won’t be sold on Python until you’ve learned the language by reading the rest of this book and have done a project or two. Tail recursion elimination is necessary in functional languages with no side effects, like scheme, but not in a language with explicit state like Python. OANDA Forex Order Book A 24-hour summary of open orders and positions held by OANDA's clients. mhtml from Mafia-download. There are many ways for an exchange to facilitate this, however the most popular mechanism, and the subject of this article, is. I am in no way affiliated with IDEX, use at your own risk. The longer the algorithm runs, the closer the surrogate function comes to. def aggregate_trade_iter (self, symbol, start_str = None, last_id = None): """Iterate over aggregate trade data from (start_time or last_id) to the end of the history so far. Here's a list of 10 sites built with Python. We have seen in our previous implementation of the diamond problem, how Python "solves" the problem, i. 6 Order Statistics Limit Distributions of Maxima and Minima, cont. An exchange/bourse is a marketplace where agents can buy and sell _things_ to each other. Packt is the online library and learning platform for professional developers. Kraken is one of the biggest exchanges for crypto currencies, providing an API supporting queries to access public information such as last prices/volumes, limit order book and private information like positions, balance, etc. if at all do you interpret data from the order books and use. For better experience of running functions connected with archived data, please use REST API. Python 3 already broadly supports creating GUI applications, with Tkinter in the standard library. You may get a "maximum recusion limit exceeded" exception. Read this book online. We'll review basic Python skills and data structures, move on to how to load data from different sources, rearrange and aggregate it, and finally how to analyze and visualize it to create high-quality products. If market conditions cannot fill the limit order immediately, then the limit order will become part of the open order book until filled by another incoming order or canceled by the user. Discover the exciting new features of Python 3. If you're familiar with financial trading and know Python, you can get started with basic algorithmic trading in no time. They are extracted from open source Python projects. The log loss can be implemented in Python using the log_loss() function in scikit-learn. Algorithmic trading in less than 100 lines of Python code. argv can be looped for all remaining arguments. You can vote up the examples you like or vote down the ones you don't like. This is an excerpt from the Python Data Science Handbook by Jake VanderPlas; Jupyter notebooks are available on GitHub. extant order for 109 shares at $27. A new USE_PYTHON=optsuffix that will add PYTHON_PKGNAMESUFFIX has been added to cope with Python ports that did not have the Python PKGNAMEPREFIX but are flavored. post_only (bool) – (optional) indicates that the order should only make liquidity. Think Stats is an introduction to Probability and Statistics for Python programmers. I'll assume that you are familiar with the basics of at least one programming language. close Testing. So what is really happening here? Most traders are not leaving their orders on the books, but reacting to movements and timing in the market. How to limit execution time of a function call in Python the execution of multiple python statements within a with time_limit book on concurrency before even. Second Life is a free 3D virtual world where users can create, connect, and chat with others from around the world using voice and text. if yes please. In this tutorial, we will write a simple Python program to calculate the sum of first n natural numbers. Multithreading in Python, for example. Private API allows you to create and cancel new orders, and to check your balance. orderbook - Matching Engine for Limit Order Book in Golang #opensource. Limit Orders. ' even if they are present in the directory. But not the other way around. It has been a couple of months since my last post; busy with lots of projects. If the values diverge, you'll know that you need to get a new order book snapshot, re-subscribe to the channel, or inspect your implementation of the API. AsciiDoc is light weight: it consists of a single Python script and a bunch of configuration files. So you should enter the query "monty python"—making sure to surround the phrase with quotation marks. The choice function picks a random item from a sequence. The tool is particularly designed to manipulate biological data, and especially multiple sequence alignments. 7 Book Description. Abstract: Time series forecasting is a crucial component of many important applications, ranging from forecasting the stock markets to energy load prediction. Once you memoize a function, it will only compute its output once for each set of parameters you call it with. limit order. If a trader wants to reduce the size of her order, she can issue a cancel/replace, which cancels the order, then immediately replaces it with another order at the same price, but with a lower size. 20 Implementation of an order book in Python on Vimeo. Tuple is a collection which is ordered and unchangeable. get_full_order_book (symbol) [source]. How to develop an example of simulated dice rolls in Python to demonstrate the central limit theorem. Download GitHub - abhathal_PyBook_ Limit order book and matching engine in Python. For example, if you let the user enter search queries like tags:python, it would be convenient to somehow turn that into a query like Article. limit my search to r/learnpython Know Java, easy to learn Python. Some quant problems require an intensive work with mathematical (time-)series given initial conditions. Every aspect of a plotly chart (the colors, the grids, the data, and so on) has a corresponding key-value attribute in these objects. Problem 7: Write a program split. pandas is an open source, BSD-licensed library providing high-performance, easy-to-use data structures and data analysis tools for the Python programming language. format() method of the string class allows you to do variable substitutions and value formatting. /python on most machines (and what is used in all examples),. From Wikiversity Take an address book for another example. See > below. A queue is kind of like a list:. Introducing Python Object Types This chapter begins our tour of the Python language. mhtml from Mafia-download. That's a good thing. Congratulations you've made it to the end of this Python Seaborn tutorial! We've just concluded a tour of key Seaborn paradigms and showed you many examples along the way. It provides a high-level interface for drawing attractive and informative statistical graphics. We will be using parts of Chapter. Python CSV DictWriter. 8, unless otherwise noted. This book takes a computational approach, which has several advantages over mathematical approaches: I present most ideas using Python code, rather than mathematical notation. Each element or value that is inside of a list is called an item. To scrape or not to scrape. If you're not sure which to choose, learn more about installing packages. Share photos and videos, send messages and get updates. sits in the order book until it is. Python is a popular, powerful, and versatile programming language; however, concurrency and parallelism in Python often seems to be a matter of debate. "tags" == "python") # does NOT work. It has a good discussion of how to install and run Python on your own computer. Every limit order is assigned a unique ID so that. This is the python sql order by module of our entire Python MySQL tutorial. These settings control the search order of the address books (when Outlook needs to resolve the addresses) as well as the display in the address book when you click to To button. Setup web scraping with Python. We provide easy content authoring, a learner-centric UX, structured learning paths, and meaningful analytics so you can activate your organization’s most critical knowledge with simplicity. (Updated 11/10/2005) The entire Dive into Python book is available online he re. Aliases have lower precedence than magic functions and Python normal variables, so if ‘foo’ is both a Python variable and an alias, the alias can not be executed until ‘del foo’ removes the Python variable. It also gives us full control over the order of conditions and samples in any displays. Classroom Training Courses The goal of this website is to provide educational material, allowing you to learn Python on your own. That is, mathematical expressions are evaluated in the following order (memorized by many as PEMDAS), which is also applied to parentheticals. SageMath: an open source alternative to Mathematica, Maple, MATLAB, and Magma (SymPy is included in Sage) SymEngine: a rewriting of SymPy's core in C++, in order to increase its performance. A limit order is an order to trade a certain amount of a security at a given price. Second Life's official website. ' even if they are present in the directory. The log loss can be implemented in Python using the log_loss() function in scikit-learn. I hope this is the good site for my question. If you installed Anaconda’s Python, then you already have the package because it’s bundled into the installation. The checksum allows you to rest easy by always knowing that your books are up to date and valid. Threading and task management in Python. 7 and up, I get it wrong and for the life of me I can’t figure out their documentation, I was quite familiar with the older % method. The module I am referring to is **itertools**. `report` notification will arrive before request result. With it, you can add content like headers, form data, multipart files, and parameters via simple Python libraries. Press the (-) if you wish to see orders grouped together for a broader view of the entire order book, or (+) if you prefer to see more detail in the order book. Different from previous models we explicitly model a reference price process that "sweeps" the limit order book as it fluctuates up and down. It provides a full suite of well known enterprise-level persistence patterns, designed for efficient and high-performing database access, adapted into a simple. These libraries use. We define a new class, based on another, 'parent' class. Here's a list of 10 sites built with Python. In this article series Imanol Pérez, a PhD researcher in Mathematics at Oxford University, and an expert guest contributor to QuantStart continues the discussion of high-frequency trading via the introduction of the limit order book. Multithreading in Python, for example. Specialized modules: MySQLdb, psycocg and sqlite. That's a good thing. orderbook - Matching Engine for Limit Order Book in Golang #opensource. Some experienced programmers may point out that the official Python code style, PEP 8, says that underscores should be used. A limit order is an order to trade a certain amount of a security at a given price. By the end of this tutorial, you'll understand how to use the main functions and methods in Python's socket module to write your own networked client-server applications. x, however it was renamed to range() in Python 3. Welcome to python-idex v1. Belted Waist Coated Python Straight Leg Pants- Pants at SHEIN. What is an efficient data structure to model order book of prices and quantities to ensure: constant look up iteration in order of prices retrieving best bid and ask in constant time fast quantity. If you want to ask better questions of data, or need to improve and extend the capabilities of your machine learning systems, this practical data science book is invaluable. It provides a full suite of well known enterprise-level persistence patterns, designed for efficient and high-performing database access, adapted into a simple. The log loss can be implemented in Python using the log_loss() function in scikit-learn. I am in no way affiliated with IDEX, use at your own risk. Well you can in some languages, but Python actually has a recursion limit. Limit Order Book Analytics is driven by scalable Spark clusters with a range of advanced analytics based on machine learning. You can directly edit the code of the runbook using the text editor in the Azure portal, or with an offline text editor and import the runbook into Azure Automation. USES=python now also exports a PY_FLAVOR variable that contains the. As work flows throughout your organization, Box protects your content with advanced security controls, encryption key management, and complete information governance. Second Life's official website. It does not include the special entries '. The more you learn about your data, the more likely you are to develop a better forecasting model. Line plots of observations over time are popular, but there is a suite of other plots that you can use to learn more about your problem. OpenVPN Connect is the free and full-featured VPN Client that is developed in-house. We’ve also found that doing a number of exercises helps internalize each language concept. The mission of the Python Software Foundation is to promote, protect, and advance the Python programming language, and to support and facilitate the growth of a diverse and international community of Python programmers. 4 is, as prices go up by 20c increments at that price range. coincheck allows roughly two kinds of APIs; Public API and Private API. The limit order book represents the supply and demand for the stock at different price levels. In order to help you jump start your deep learning + Python education, I have created an Ubuntu virtual machine with all necessary deep learning libraries you need to successful (including Keras, TensorFlow, scikit-learn, scikit-image, OpenCV, and others) pre-configured and pre-installed. Sirignano May 16, 2016 y Abstract This paper develops a new neural network architecture for modeling spatial distributions (i. limit order. The fact-checkers, whose work is more and more important for those who prefer facts over lies, police the line between fact and falsehood on a day-to-day basis, and do a great job. Today, my small contribution is to pass along a very good overview that reflects on one of Trump’s favorite overarching falsehoods. Namely: Trump describes an America in which everything was going down the tubes under  Obama, which is why we needed Trump to make America great again. And he claims that this project has come to fruition, with America setting records for prosperity under his leadership and guidance. “Obama bad; Trump good” is pretty much his analysis in all areas and measurement of U.S. activity, especially economically. Even if this were true, it would reflect poorly on Trump’s character, but it has the added problem of being false, a big lie made up of many small ones. Personally, I don’t assume that all economic measurements directly reflect the leadership of whoever occupies the Oval Office, nor am I smart enough to figure out what causes what in the economy. But the idea that presidents get the credit or the blame for the economy during their tenure is a political fact of life. Trump, in his adorable, immodest mendacity, not only claims credit for everything good that happens in the economy, but tells people, literally and specifically, that they have to vote for him even if they hate him, because without his guidance, their 401(k) accounts “will go down the tubes.” That would be offensive even if it were true, but it is utterly false. The stock market has been on a 10-year run of steady gains that began in 2009, the year Barack Obama was inaugurated. But why would anyone care about that? It’s only an unarguable, stubborn fact. Still, speaking of facts, there are so many measurements and indicators of how the economy is doing, that those not committed to an honest investigation can find evidence for whatever they want to believe. Trump and his most committed followers want to believe that everything was terrible under Barack Obama and great under Trump. That’s baloney. Anyone who believes that believes something false. And a series of charts and graphs published Monday in the Washington Post and explained by Economics Correspondent Heather Long provides the data that tells the tale. The details are complicated. Click through to the link above and you’ll learn much. But the overview is pretty simply this: The U.S. economy had a major meltdown in the last year of the George W. Bush presidency. Again, I’m not smart enough to know how much of this was Bush’s “fault.” But he had been in office for six years when the trouble started. So, if it’s ever reasonable to hold a president accountable for the performance of the economy, the timeline is bad for Bush. GDP growth went negative. Job growth fell sharply and then went negative. Median household income shrank. The Dow Jones Industrial Average dropped by more than 5,000 points! U.S. manufacturing output plunged, as did average home values, as did average hourly wages, as did measures of consumer confidence and most other indicators of economic health. (Backup for that is contained in the Post piece I linked to above.) Barack Obama inherited that mess of falling numbers, which continued during his first year in office, 2009, as he put in place policies designed to turn it around. By 2010, Obama’s second year, pretty much all of the negative numbers had turned positive. By the time Obama was up for reelection in 2012, all of them were headed in the right direction, which is certainly among the reasons voters gave him a second term by a solid (not landslide) margin. Basically, all of those good numbers continued throughout the second Obama term. The U.S. GDP, probably the single best measure of how the economy is doing, grew by 2.9 percent in 2015, which was Obama’s seventh year in office and was the best GDP growth number since before the crash of the late Bush years. GDP growth slowed to 1.6 percent in 2016, which may have been among the indicators that supported Trump’s campaign-year argument that everything was going to hell and only he could fix it. During the first year of Trump, GDP growth grew to 2.4 percent, which is decent but not great and anyway, a reasonable person would acknowledge that — to the degree that economic performance is to the credit or blame of the president — the performance in the first year of a new president is a mixture of the old and new policies. In Trump’s second year, 2018, the GDP grew 2.9 percent, equaling Obama’s best year, and so far in 2019, the growth rate has fallen to 2.1 percent, a mediocre number and a decline for which Trump presumably accepts no responsibility and blames either Nancy Pelosi, Ilhan Omar or, if he can swing it, Barack Obama. I suppose it’s natural for a president to want to take credit for everything good that happens on his (or someday her) watch, but not the blame for anything bad. Trump is more blatant about this than most. If we judge by his bad but remarkably steady approval ratings (today, according to the average maintained by 538.com, it’s 41.9 approval/ 53.7 disapproval) the pretty-good economy is not winning him new supporters, nor is his constant exaggeration of his accomplishments costing him many old ones). I already offered it above, but the full Washington Post workup of these numbers, and commentary/explanation by economics correspondent Heather Long, are here. On a related matter, if you care about what used to be called fiscal conservatism, which is the belief that federal debt and deficit matter, here’s a New York Times analysis, based on Congressional Budget Office data, suggesting that the annual budget deficit (that’s the amount the government borrows every year reflecting that amount by which federal spending exceeds revenues) which fell steadily during the Obama years, from a peak of $1.4 trillion at the beginning of the Obama administration, to $585 billion in 2016 (Obama’s last year in office), will be back up to $960 billion this fiscal year, and back over $1 trillion in 2020. (Here’s the New York Times piece detailing those numbers.) Trump is currently floating various tax cuts for the rich and the poor that will presumably worsen those projections, if passed. As the Times piece reported: